Oil Spill

What's oil spill?
- An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity
- Compounds of oil are petroleum, sulphur and other chemicals.
- Oil is lighter than water, so it flows on the sea.

What's the effect of oil opill?
- Damage of the oil spill depends upon the condition under which the spill occurs, and they can be the vagaries of the sea itself.
- The lifetime of lumps of oil may range from a few months to a year using a lot of money.
- There were great fears for the safety of marine birds, fish populations, shellfish, plants, humpback and other organisms.
- Not all of the animals or plants are in danger of their lives, BUT the disorder of food chain increases the victims.
- The danger to human health from the oil spill comes from eating oil-contaminated seafood.

How can we stop an oil spill?
- Using less oil by using public transportation.

- http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/05/11/tech/main6474682.shtml?tag=cbsnewsMainColumnArea
(Six dolphins were killed by the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The carcasses are found in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.)
(Fishery in Louisiana is damaged by oil spill. Fishers have lost about 50% of their sales. Louisiana state officials banned fishing for 10 days.
The oil spill knocked the Daybrook facility down when Louisiana was trying to rebuild it which destroyed by the catastrophic storm.)

Jog the Web
- http://www.jogtheweb.com/run/MixqrIFaRrD0/Oil-Spill

Chemistry Explanation
(references: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surfactant, http://www.chemistry.co.nz/surfactants.htm)

To get rid of the heavy oil, we use function of surfactants which are the major constituent of soap, shampoo, and detergent.

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Surfactants – briefly defined as a material that can greatly reduce the surface tension of water when used in very low concentrations.
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Hydrophobe - stick shaped part (repelled from mass of water. non-polar)
Hydrophile - globe shaped part (can transiently bond with water through hydrogen bonding. polar solvent)

The Process of Detergency - The oil on the ocean is cleaned up by emulsification of surfactants. A hydrophobes sticks to the oil and dissolve or separate it in small parts.

~The Process of Detergency~

Things we need
- 3 kinds of detergent
- 3 containers
- water
- oil

1.Put same amount of water into 3 containers.
2.Add oil into the contrainers.
3.Put each detergent in the mixture of oil and water.
4.Compare the result by looking how much is left.

Oil Spill and Carbon Cycle
A. How does oil spill relate to the carbon cycle, water cycle, and/or the nitrogen cycle?

Fundamentally, petroleum is formed from some layers of organic materials which come from the remains of dead animals. predominantly composed by hydrocarbon(about 85%).

Oil spill relates to the carbon cycle when the oil is cleaned up by burning. It produces a lot of pollution in the air including carbon dioxide,
and some other kinds of chemicals which damage the environment of the earth.

B. How can one person make a difference?

All the people can help decreasing the number of oil tanker accidents and the result of oil spill on the sea by reducing oil consumption.

C. How am I going to make a change in my life? What will that effect be?